ROZA (FASTING)

Hadiths on fasting
Allah's Apostle said, "Allah said, 'All the deeds of Adam's sons (people) are for them, except fasting which is for Me, and I
will give the reward for it.' Fasting is a shield or protection from the fire and from committing sins. If one of you is fasting, he
should avoid sexual relation with his wife and quarreling, and if somebody should fight or quarrel with him, he should say, 'I
am fasting.' By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the unpleasant smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better
in the sight of Allah than the smell of musk. There are two pleasures for the fasting person, one at the time of breaking his
fast, and the other at the time when he will meet his Lord; then he will be pleased because of his fasting."
( Sahih Al-
Bukhari Hadith)

The Prophet said to me, "You fast daily all the year and pray every night all the night?" I replied in the affirmative. The
Prophet said, "If you keep on doing this, your eyes will become weak and your body will get tired. He who fasts all the year
is as he who did not fast at all. The fasting of three days (a month) will be equal to the fasting of the whole year." I replied, "I
have the power for more than this." The Prophet said, "Then fast like the fasting of David who used to fast on alternate days
and would never flee from the battle field, on meeting the enemy."
( Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith)

The Prophet  said, "(Allah said), 'Every good deed of Adam's son is for him except fasting; it is for Me, and I shall reward
(the fasting person) for it.' Verily, the smell of the mouth of a fasting person is better to Allah than the smell of musk."
( Sahih
Al-Bukhari Hadith)

Obligation of Fasting
The rule for Fasting is similar to Namaz and is Farz-e-Ain and those who reject to believe it as obligatory (Farz) is a Kafir
and those who miss it without genuine reason is a big sinner and will receive punishment in hell. Those children who have the
strength should be made to keep a fast and strong boys and girls should be forced to keep a fast (a few slaps not with a
stick) [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. Fasting for the whole month of Ramadan is obligatory.
Description of fasting and age for beginning
According to Shariat, the definition of a fast is make the intention to fast for the sake of Allah from the break of dawn to
sunset and to refrain from eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse. For fasting, a woman has to be clean from
menstruation or bleeding after childbirth meaning, the fast will not count for a woman on her period or still bleeding after
childbirth. It is obligatory for a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth to fast after her state of bleeding is over and
she is clean from it, meaning to make Qaza for the missed Roza. Fasting is not obligatory for children or for an insane
person as long as they remain insane for the whole month of Ramadan, and if they gain sanity any period in the middle and it
is still within the allocated time for intention, then they must make the intention and fast from that day onwards and the Qaza
is necessary for the whole month, for example, if a person was insane from the first of Ramadan and gained sanity on the
twenty ninth day from the break of dawn until midday then they will have to perform Qaza for whole month's fasts [Radd-ul-
Mohtar].

Allocated time for the intention of Fasting
Rule: The fasts of Ramadan, fixed time promised fasts, voluntary, Sunnat, Mustahhab, and Makrooh fasts, the time for the
Niyyat is from sunset upto midday and if an intention is made from any time between this allocated time then the Fast will
count but it is better to make the intention from night-time. Except for these six types of fasts all other Fasts (such as, Qaza
for Ramadan, Qaza for Nafl, non fixed time promised fasts, compensation Roza i.e. Kaffara, Fasting for your sins and Roza
for Tamattao) the time is from sunset upto the beginning of the break of dawn not after this and the mentioning of the exact
fast being performed is necessary, for example, I am keeping a fast for the 28th missed Ramadan Roza, or I am keeping a
promised fast for such-and-such a being fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: The intention for the Roza must be made before midday and if it is made as soon as the sun reached midday then the
fast will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

The meaning of the intention
Rule: Just as it was explained for other forms of worship, intention means to fix a firm thought in your heart, it is not
necessary to say the intention, in the same way the intention for the fast is done the same way, however, it is better to say it
with the tongue. If the intention is made at night then say "I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which
1 will keep tomorrow" and if the fast is made before midday then say " I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for
Allah which I will keep today" [Johra, Bahar].
Rule: If the intention is made in the day (before midday) then it is necessary to make the intention that I have been fasting
from the break of dawn and if you make the intention that I will start fasting from now not from the break of dawn, then the
Roza will not count [Johra, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

Fasting on doubtful days
Rule: The rule for fasting on the thirtieth of Shabaan when you are not sure whether it is the thirtieth of Shabaan or the first of
Ramadan, then to fast with the sole intention of Nafl is allowed but to fast with the intention that if it is the first of Ramadan
then it is my first Ramadan Roza and if it is not the first of Ramadan then it is a Nafl Roza then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
However, if the thirtieth falls on a day where you always fast on that day then it is better to fast on that day, for example, if
you fasted every Thursday and the thirtieth of Shabaan was on a Thursday then it is better to fast that day as a Nafl fast
[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
Rule: On a day where there is uncertainty then you should wait until midday and if the news of seeing the moon arrives then
fast that day and if no news arrive then eat and drink [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: To fast at the end of Shabaan for only one or two days is Makrooh and if you fast for three or more days then it is not
Makrooh. Rule: To fast on the day of Eid is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, also the same rule applies on fasting on Bakr-e-Eid and
also on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Zil Hajj.
Rule: To fast for Sunnat or Nafl Roza for only one day is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi, for example, to fast on the tenth of Moharram
is Sunnat but to fast only on that day is Makrooh and if you fast on the ninth then there is no problem and there is also no
problem in fasting on the tenth and eleventh. Rule: It is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi for a woman to fast a Nafl Roza without the
permission of her husband.
To make a promise to fast
Rule: If you made a promise to fast if your prayer was fulfilled, then that fast become Wajib as soon as your prayer is
fulfilled. Rule: If you was fasting a Nafl Roza and you broke it then to perform it's Qaza is Wajib.

ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST
Rule: By eating, drinking or having intercourse breaks the fast when you are aware that you are fasting and if you forget that
you were fasting and eat or drank or had intercourse, then the fast will not break [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan etc.].
Rule: The fast will break if you smoked a cigarette or other form of smoke inhalation or cigar etc.
Rule: The fast also breaks by eating a paan or tobacco, even if you spit out the contents.
Rule: If you put sugar, sweet, chewing gum or any item in your mouth which dissolves and you swallow the taste then the
fast will break.
Rule: If there was something stuck in your teeth the same size or larger than a chickpea and you swallowed it or it was
smaller than a chickpea and you took it out of your mouth and then swallowed it again then the fast will break. Rule: If your
gums bled and the blood was more or equal to your saliva and went down your throat or was less than the saliva and it went
down your throat and you could taste it then the fast will break. If the blood was less than the saliva and you couldn't feel
the taste and it went down your throat, then the Roza will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Rule: If a syringe is used or medicine is put up your nostrils or oil or medicine is put inside the ears then the fast will break,
however, if water is put into or goes into the ears then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If you were cleaning your mouth out or was cleaning your nostrils and water went down your throat by mistake or
went up too far in your nostrils that it went in your mouth canal even by mistake then the fast will break, if however, you
forgot that you were fasting then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If you drank water or eat something whilst you were sleeping or your mouth was open and water went down your
throat or snow went down your throat then the fast will break [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: To swallow someone else's saliva or to take your own saliva in your hand and then swallowing it will break the fast
[Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: If you put a coloured thread in your mouth and your saliva became coloured and then you
swallowed the saliva, then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If tears went into the mouth and it was only a drop or two then the fast will not break and if it is more and the taste is
felt in the whole mouth then the fast will break, the same rule applies to sweat [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If a man kissed a woman or touched her or hugged her or copulated with her or embraced her and then ejaculated the
fast would break and if the woman touched a man and the man ejaculated then the fast would not break. If a man touches a
woman on her clothing and her clothing is so thick that the body warmth cannot be felt then the fast will not break even if he
ejaculates.
Rule: If the private parts are cleaned with excessive force upto the extent that the water reached upto the place where the
suppository is kept then the fast will break and one should refrain from using too much force as there is a chance of illness
[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. If a man put oil or water down the hole of his penis then the fast will not break even if the liquid
reaches the bottom. If a woman put water or oil into her vagina then her fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If a woman put cotton or a cloth in her vagina and it does not stay on the outside then the fast will break. If someone
puts a dry finger up the anus or a woman put a dry finger inside her vagina then the fast will not break and if the finger is wet
or something is on it then the fast will break when the finger reaches the part where the point of the suppository goes
[Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If a mouthful vomit is done purposely and you are aware that you are fasting then the fast will break and if small
amounts are vomited then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
Rule: If vomit occurs on it's own without control then whether, it be a small amount or large the fast will not break [Durr-e-
Mukhtar].
Rule: The rule of vomit applies when the vomit consists of food or liquid or blood, if the vomit consists of just phlegm then
the fast will not break regardless of situation [Alamgiri].
Rule: If in Ramadan a person without cause openly eats or drinks then the rule for an Islamic judge is to execute them [Durr-
e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

Actions that break the fast but only Qaza is necessary
Rule: If you were under the impression that the break of dawn had not yet occurred and therefore you eat, drank or had
sexual intercourse and then later on found out that the break of dawn had already happened, then the fast will not count and
only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: If you were forced into eating or drinking and someone threatened you (either to kill you or cause you serious harm) if
you did not break your fast then even if you eat with your own hands, only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
Meaning only one fast has to be performed to replace the one broken [Bahar-e-Shariat].
Rule: If you had eatenor drank or had intercourse by mistake or you ejaculated just by seeing something or had a wet dream
and then you thought that the fast had broken and therefore you deliberately eat or drank etc. then it is only compulsory to
perform Qaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Rule: If you put ear drops in your ear or there was a wound on your stomach or head and you put medication on it and it
reached the stomach or brain or you took on a drip (of glucose) or you sucked up medicine up your nose or you eat a
stone, soil, cotton, paper, grass or any item where people would not generally eat and would think awful of, or stayed in
Ramadan as if in Roza but did not make an intention of fasting, or did not make an intention in the morning but made an
intention before midday and then eat after midday, or made an intention of fasting but not for Ramadan or raindrops or snow
went down the throat or drank many drops of tears or sweat or had intercourse with a very small child who was not
capable of having intercourse, or had intercourse with a dead person or had intercourse with an animal or had intercourse
on a thigh or stomach or kissed a woman on her lips or touched a woman and even if there was a piece of cloth in between
but the warmth of the body is felt and in these situations you ejaculated or you masturbated or you ejaculated whilst
performing foreplay or except for the fast of Ramadan you broke another fast whether it be the Qaza of Ramadan, or a
woman was sleeping whilst she was fasting and someone had intercourse with her whilst in her sleep or a woman was in her
sense in the morning and she made the intention of fasting and then she went insane and whilst in this situation sexual
intercourse was committed with her, or you were under the impression that it is night and you had food or you were in doubt
that it was night but you had food but in fact the morning had broken, or you thought that the sun had set and you eat but the
sun had not set or two people gave witness that the sun had set and two people gave witness that it was still day and this
situation you eat food then in ALL the above situations only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar, etc.].
Rule: A traveller settled at a place, a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth became clean from it or an insane
person came back to their senses, or an ill person became healthy whose fast was broken whether someone made the
person break their fast or water or other liquid went down the throat by mistake and the fast was broken because of this or
you thought that it was night and had some food but in fact morning had broken or you thought that it was sunset but in fact
daytime was still left then in all these situations where there is still daytime left then you must stay as if you were in fasting as
this is Wajib and then perform Qaza for the fast and if a child became an adult or an infidel became a Muslim then the Qaza
for this day is not necessary but to remain as if they were fasting for the rest of the day is also necessary for them [Durr-e-
Mukhtar].
Rule: When a child reaches the age of ten and they have the strength to keep a fast then they should be forced to keep a fast
and if necessary they should be hit and if the strength is seen and then they break the fast then they are not to be given the
order of Qaza, however, if the Namaz is broken then they should be made to repeat it [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. If
someone was having intercourse before dawn and as soon as dawn occurred they separated then there is no harm but if
they continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If you were having intercourse by mistake and you separated as soon as you remembered then there is no harm and if
you continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: A deceased person had some Qaza that he had to perform then the Wali (next of kin) should give Fidya (money to
replace the fast) to the poor but this is only necessary when the deceased had made a will and left some property behind
and if this is not the case then it is not necessary for the Wali to give Fidya, however, it is better if they do so [Bahar-e-
Shariat].

Actions that break the fast and Kaffara is also necessary
If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary. The Kaffara (compensation) is either to free one slave
and if this is not possible then keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if this is also not possible then feed fully sixty
beggars twice in a day. If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day's fast is missed then you must start the
sixty again the previous ones will not count. If someone had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the sixtieth due to
illness etc. then they must start again the previous fifty-nine are wasted. However, if a woman starts her period in between
then she must miss them and continue the fasts once she becomes clean and the previous fasts before the period started will
count and when completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Alamgiri]. When breaking the fast
and for Kaffara to become necessary there are a few conditions that have to be fulfilled and only then the Kaffara become
necessary.

Conditions where Kaffara become necessary
1. A fast is kept in the month of Ramadan with the intention of keeping a fast of Ramadan.
2. The person keeping the fast is a resident and not a traveller.
3. The person is an adult and is sane (if a child or madman breaks the fast then Kaffara is not necessary).
4. The intention for the fast of Ramadan was done at night (if the intention for the fast was made in the day before midday
and then broken then only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara).
5 After breaking the fast an act occurred which gives reason to miss a fast which you had no control over such as a woman
started her period or such an illness occurred where it is allowed to miss a fast then the Kaffara will not be necessary. If
however, after breaking the fast a person became a Ma'zoor (had a problem) which was within their control such as a
person injured themselves and therefore became Ma'zoor or became a traveller then the Kaffara will not be cancelled as
these things are within their control and Kaffara becomes necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: A person fasting purposely eat or drank some medicine or tablets or drank water or had something to eat or drink for
pleasure or had intercourse in the front or back passage with a person capable of having intercourse (male or female) and
whether they had an orgasm or not or had intercourse with another person fasting then in all these situations both Qaza and
Kaffara is necessary.
Rule: If such an act is done whereby the thought is that the fast will not break(except eating, drinking or having intercourse),
but you thought that the fast has broken and then you eat or drank, for example, you extracted blood or put on Surma (eye
colour) or you had intercourse with an animal or touched a woman or kissed a woman or laid next to a woman or
performed foreplay but in all these cases you did not reach orgasm i.e. did not ejaculate, or you put a dry finger up the anus
and then after this you purposely eat or drank then in all these cases it is necessary to perform Qaza and Kaffara. If
however, an act is performed where the thought is that the fast does not break and you thought that the fast had broken and
a Mufti (Islamic jurist) gave a Fatwa and the Mufti is respected within the local community and the Fatwa is that the fast has
broken and then you purposely eat or drank, or you had wrongly misinterpreted a Hadith and thought that the fast had
broken and then you eat and drank, then the Kaffara is not necessary even though the Fatwa is wrong or the Hadith heard is
not proven [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

Acts that do not break the fast
Rule: If you eat, drink or have sexual intercourse by mistake then the fast does not break.
Rule: If a fly, smoke or dust goes down the throat then the fast does not break, however, if you purposely inhaled smoke
then the fast will break if you know that you are fasting. For example, incense, loban was lighted and was brought near the
mouth and the smoke was sucked up the nose, then the fast will break.
Rule: If you apply oil or lotion or surma on the body or eyes then the fast will not break and if the taste of the oil or surma is
felt in the throat or if the saliva is coloured due to the surma then the fast will still not break [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Johra, Bahar].
Rule: If a fly goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if it is deliberately swallowed then the fast will break
[Alamgiri, Bahar]. If whilst talking the lips got wet or you cleared your throat and then drank the saliva, then the fast will not
break but you should refrain from doing this [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]
Rule: If your gums bled and the blood reached the throat but did not go down it, then the fast will not break [Durr-e-
Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
Rule: If you were eating by mistake and as soon as you remembered you spat out the food then the fast will not break and if
you swallowed the food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
Rule: You started eating (sehri) before the break of dawn and whilst you were eating you saw that the morning had broken
and you spat out the food in your mouth then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the fast will break
[Alamgiri].
Rule: If you chewed a linseed or something of equivalent size and it went down the throat with your saiiva then the fast will
not break, if however, you felt the taste of it then the fast will break [Fatahul Qadir].
Rule: If medicine is grounded or flour is sieved and you felt the taste in your throat then the fast will not break [Durr-e-
Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir etc.].
Rule: If water went inside the ears then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir]
Rule: If you talked badly about someone behind their back then the fast will not break, however to backbite is a large sin. It
is stated in the Holy Quran that to backbite is the same as eating the flesh of one's dead brother, it is quoted in the Hadith
Sharif that backbiting is worse than adultery and by backbiting the light (Moor) of fasting will disappear [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: If you kissed but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break, and in the same way you looked at a woman or her
private parts but did not touch her and ejaculated or reached orgasm even though you looked many times or you thought
about intercourse for a long-time or kept on thinking about sexual activities and then ejaculated, then in all these situations
the fast will not break [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: 'If you had a wet dream (nocturnal emission) then the fast will not break.
Rule: If you remained in a state where bathing is obligatory (Junub) until the morning, in fact remained like that all day then
the fast will not break, however to remain like that so that you miss a Namaz is Haram and it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif
that where there is a Junub person in a house the angels of mercy do not enter the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. Rule: If
you had intercourse in any other hole except for the two passages below then unless you ejaculate the fast will not break.
Also, if you masturbated but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break although this act is strictly Haram and it is stated
in the Hadith that those who do this are not with me (Holy Prophet) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

Acts that make the fast Makrooh
Rule: To lie, backbite, tell-tale, to swear, talk shamelessly, to cause someone harm are all Haram acts anyway, but to do
these acts whilst fasting are even more Haram and because of this the fast become Makrooh.
Rule: For a fasting person to taste or chew something without reason then the fast becomes Makrooh. The acceptable
reason is when a husband or master is short-tempered and due to there being less salt will cause him disappointment then to
taste (but not swallow) will not make the fast Makrooh. Another reason is when there is a small child or elderly or disabled
person who cannot chew a chappati or bread and there is no other person available who is not fasting then the fast will not
become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

Definition of tasting
Tasting something is not what is known as today where to taste something a few bites are taken or a few sips are taken,
never mind tasting this will break the fast and if the conditions of Kaffara apply then Kaffara will become necessary. Tasting
is to put something on the tongue and the taste is identified and then the food is spat out and none of it goes down the throat
then the fast will not break and if something goes down the throat then the fast will break. Rule: If an item is purchased and it
is necessary to taste it otherwise you would suffer a loss then you can taste it and the fast will not become Makrooh [Durr-e-
Mukhtar].
Rule: To kiss a woman or to embrace her or to touch her is Makrooh when the fear is that you may ejaculate or may be
tempted to have sexual intercourse and to kiss her on the lips or to suck her tongue is even more Makrooh and in the same
way to perform foreplay is also Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. To smell a rose or musk (perfume) etc. and. to put oil
on the beard or mouchtache or to put on surma is not Makrooh as long as the surma is applied to look handsome or the oil
is put on so that the beard will grow, and if the beard is a fist in length then it is Makrooh even when not fasting and if you
are fasting then the Makrooh is even more [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: Whilst fasting, for a person to clean the nose or mouth with too much water and exaggeration is Makrooh,
exaggeration in washing the mouth means to fill the whole mouth with water.
Rule: Except for bathing or Wuzu to put water in the mouth or up the nose to cool down or wash the body or put on a wet
cloth to cool down is not Makrooh, however, if you do this to show that you are suffering i.e. to put on a wet cloth, then it is
Makrooh because to have a small heart for worship is not a good thing [Alamgih, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: To gather saliva in the mouth and then to swallow even without fasting is not a good thing but it is Makrooh whilst
fasting [Alamgiri, Bahar]. To perform Miswaak whilst fasting is not Makrooh, in fact just as it is Sunnat to perform Miswaak
on other days it is also Sunnat whilst fasting.

SEHRI AND IFTAAR (OPENING AND CLOSING THE FAST)

The virtue for performing Sehri
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated "eat for Sehri as there is a lot of blessings for this. The difference
between our fasts and the fasts of the other book followers is the bite of sehri[Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Nisaa’i etc.]. Allah
and His angels send blessings to those who eat at Sehri [Tibrani]. The whole of Sehri is complete blessing and should not be
missed and if possible drink at least one gulp of water because Allah and His angels send blessings upon those who perform
sehri" [Imam Ahmad]. The Holy Prophet has stated the Allah has said that out of my servants I love those more who rush
their Iftari and delay their Sehri [Ahmad, Tirmizi etc.]. It is also reported that Allah chooses those who hurry their Iftari and
delay their Sehri [Tibrani]. Rule: To eat Sehri and to delay it is Sunnat, but to delay it so much that their is doubt that the
dawn will break then this is Makrooh [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: To hurry the Iftar is Sunnat but it must only be done when you
are satisfied that the sun has set, and until you are not completely satisfied you should not start Iftari even if the Mo'azzin has
called the Azaan. On days where it is cloudy the Iftar should not be hurried [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

What should Iftar be started with?
Rule: The Holy Prophet has stated that when you start the Iftar, then start it with either some dates or dry, dates, and if these
are not available then start it with water as this is an item that purifies. The Holy Prophet used to pray this Dua when finishing
the fast (Dua of Iftari) "Allahumma Laka Sumto, Wa Alaa Rizqika Aftarto" meaning, Oh Allah I fasted for you and I have
opened my fast with vour given wealth.

Situations Where Missing The Fast Is Allowed
Rule: Travelling, pregnancy, breastfeeding, sickness, fear of being killed, any other difficulty recognised by Shariat or illness
affecting sense are all reason where missing the fast is allowed and therefore no sin will be committed and when the cause is
over then to keep Qaza of the missed fast is compulsory.
Rule: Travelling means as per Shariat the recognised distance, i.e. a journey with the intention of travelling three days (fifty-
seven and a half miles) even if the journey is for a disallowed cause [Durr-e-MukhtarJ. Rule: If you started travelling in the
daytime then that day's fast is not a cause, however, if it is broken then the Kaffara will not be necessary but you will have
committed a sin, and if you broke it before starting the journey and then started the journey, then Kaffara will also be
necessary. If you travelled during the day but forgot something at home and returned for it and whilst back at home you
broke the fast and then started the journey again, then Kaffara is also Wajib [Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If a traveller had not started travelling before midday and had not eaten anything so far, then it is Wajib to make the
intention for the fast [Johra, Bahar].
Rule: If no harm will affect the traveller or his companion if they fasted then it is better to fast and if it will cause a problem
then it is better not to fast [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: If a pregnant woman or a mother breastfeeding has a true indication that her life or the child's life is in risk then she can
miss the fast even if the breastfeeding woman is only a wet-nurse and only does this work in Ramadan [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If an ill person has a true indication that their illness will worsen or the healing will be delayed or if a healthy person has
a definite indication that their health will deteriorate or the helper will become very weak then in all the above situations it is
allowed to miss the fast [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Rule: In these situations a definite indication is necessary and just a thought or fear is not sufficient. A definite . indication
means three options, either a physical sign is seen or felt, or true experience is known or a Muslim Doctor who is not a
wrongdoer (Fasiq) has advised. If therefore a physical sign is not seen or it has never been experienced or an infidel doctor
or wrongdoer has advised and you missed a fast then this will mean that you have committed a sin and if you break a fast
then Kaffara would also be necessary [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Most of today's doctors if they are not infidels then they
certainly are wrongdoers and if these people advise then it must not be followed and it is not allowed to miss the fast or to
break the fast is not allowed. These doctors are seen to forbid fasting for small illnesses and do not have the decency to
separate the illness that does need the fast to be missed and the illness where fasting would not cause any harm.
Rule: If you are so hungry or thirsty that you are definitely sure that you will die or you will lose sanity then in this situation do
not keep a fast [Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If you are bitten by a snake and your life is at risk then break the fast [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If an old-age pensioner (an old person who is getting weaker every day) who does not have the strength to keep fast
and will no longer be able to keep a fast then it is allowed for them not to fast any more, but it is Wajib upon them to give
Fidya for every fast missed meaning to fully feed a beggar twice or to give Sadqa and Fitra for every fast missed [Durr-e-
Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Rule: If an old person cannot keep the fast in summer due to the heat but can keep the fast in winter then he can miss them
in the summer but it is obligatory for him to fast perform Qaza) in the winter [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar etc.]. Rule: After
giving Fidya the old person gained enough strength to keep the Qaza for the missed fast then it is Wajib upon them to fast
and the Fidya will be counted as voluntary.
Rule: A person cannot fast or pray Namaz for another person, however he can send the reward for his fasts to other people
[Hidaya, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: A Nafl fast if started deliberately becomes necessary and therefore if it is broken it becomes Wajib to keep a Qaza or
if it breaks unintentionally such as if monthly periods start it is still necessary to keep it's Qaza [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar,
etc.].
Rule: If a Nafl fast is kept on Eid days or the days when it is Makrooh to fast then it is not Wajib to finish the fast, in fact it is
Wajib to break it and Qaza is not Wajib for breaking this fast. If you have made a promise to fast on these days then it is
Wajib that you keep the fast but on some other day not on these days [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
When Nafl fasts can be broken
Rule: You can break a Nafl fast due to the arrival of guests when you are sure that you will perform Qaza for it and it is only
allowed to break the fast before midday not after. However, if your parents are unhappy then it is allowed to break the fast
before Asr Namaz and not after [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If someone has invited you for a meal then you can break the Nafl fast before midday and it is necessary to keep it's
Qaza.
Rule: A woman should not fast Nafl, promised or oath Rozas without her husband's permission and if she has then he can
make her break them but to perform the Qaza will be Wajib and permission should be asked from the husband before
keeping them. If however there is no problem from her husband then she can keep the Qaza without his permission and in
fact if he refuses she can still keep the Qaza. As for Ramadan fasts or Ramadan Qaza fasts there is no need to gain
permission from her husband and in fact if he stops her she must still keep these fasts [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Rule: If a fast is not kept due to any reason then when it is possible it the Qaza must be kept [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].

VIRTUES FOR SOME NAFL FASTS

Ashura
Meaning fasting on the tenth of Mohharram and it is better to fast on the ninth of Mohharram. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho
Alaihi Wasallam kept the Ashura fast himself and instructed others to keep it and stated that after Ramadan the best fast is
of Ashura [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmizi] and he has also stated the Ashura fast erodes the past one year and the
coming one year's sins [Muslim, Abu Da'ud].

Six fasts of Shawwal
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who have kept the fasts of Ramadan and then kept six
fasts of Shawwal, then they are like those who have always kept a fast. He has also stated that if you fast after Eid for six
days then you have fasted for the whole year [Muslim, Abu Da'ud Tirmizi, Nisaai, Ibne-Maja etc.].
Rule: It is better that they are kept. separately and if they are kept continuously after Eid then there is no harm [Durr-e-
Mukhtar, Bahar].

Fast of Shabaan and the virtue for the 15th of Shabaan
The Holy Prophet Salallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that when the fifteenth night of Shabaan arrives then on that night
stand (meaning perform Nafl Namaz) and fast during the day, because Allah Ta'ala after sunset pays special attention to the
world and says is there anyone wanting forgiveness whom I will forgive, is there anyone looking for wealth whom I will- give
wealth to, is there anyone who is stuck in difficulty whom I will release ? Is there anyone like this, is there anyone like this ?
And He states this until the sunrise of Fajr [Ibne Maja]. He has also stated that on the night of the fifteenth Allah pays
attention to all His creation and forgives all except for the infidel and those who break friendship because of a worldly cause
[Tibrani, Ibne Huban].

Fasts of Ayyam Baiz
Meaning the fasts of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of every month. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has
stated that fasting for three. Days every month is like fasting all the time [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also stated that if
possible keep three fasts every month as every fast erodes ten sins and clears you of sins like water cleans clothes [Tibrani].

Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated the actions of each person is presented to Allah on Mondays and
Thursdays and I would prefer that my actions are presented when I am fasting. He has also stated that Allah forgives
everyone except two people who have had a fight and are not speaking to each other, then Allah tells His angels to leave
them until they make up [Tirmizi, Ibne Maja].

Fasting on Wednesdays and Thursdays
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who fast on Wednesdays and Thursdays, then there
freedom from Hell has been written down and those who fast on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays then Allah Ta'ala
makes a house for them in Jannat where the inside can be seen from the outside and the outside can be seen from the inside.
Rule: To specifically keep a fast only on Fridays is Makrooh, therefore, you should keep a fast before or after, as to keep a
Nafl or Sunnat fast on it's own is Makrooh.